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Schizophrenia

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It's a disorder of thoughts, perception,emotion and behaviour.

It is characterized by delusion and hallucination causing social and occupational impairment.

It's a chronic but treatable psychiatric disorder affecting 1% of general population.

It's seen equally in male and females usually in a age group of 15to 30 years though early and late onset psychosis are also seen.

Symptoms :

Frank Psychotic symptoms :

Delusions : these are false illogical and irrational thoughts not keeping with reality and can't be changed even if u try to convince a patient.

Examples of delusions :

Delusion of persecution

Delusion of reference

Delusion of grandiosity.

Delusion of jealousy

Hallucinations :

these are false perceptions in absence of stimulus.

Types :

AUDITORY: : hearing voices.

VISUAL :seeing people ,image or shadow.

TACTILE : Sensations of touch.

OLFACTORY : Sensation of smell.

GUSTATORY : Sensations of taste.

EMOTIONS : emotions are visible in facial expressions called as affect. Affect is blunt in these patients as there is problem with feelings.

BEHAVIOUR : These patients are very aggressive ,abusive and at times assaultive. They may be harmful to themselves or to others.

COGNITION : It is very dull and slow as these patients can't focus as lack concentration and hence their retrieval is affected.They would have poor executive functioning and poor working memory.

NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS:

Flat affect.

Poverty of speech (mute).

Apathy.

Inability to have a pleasure.

Lack of initiative.

TYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA :

PARANOID.

DISORGANISED.

CATATONIC.

MIXED.

RESIDUAL.

Schizophrenia requires presence of symptoms for atleast six months.

If less than six months then

0 to 1 month duration: called as brief psychiatric disorders.

1 to 6 month: called as brief Schizophrenia disorders.

BRIEF PSYCHOTIC DISORDER :

DURATION OF SYMPTOMS: 0Day To One Month

DURATION OF SYMPTOMS:one month to six months.

It's a treatable disorder and is not due to black magic.

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